Monday, October 21, 2019

How to Pay for College Without Loans

How to Pay for College Without Loans SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The question of how to pay for college is usually one with a complicated answer. Your own unique financial situation, interests, strengths, weaknesses, and preferences all come into play. Some of the most important factors that come up center around your ability and willingness to take out student loans. In this guide, I'll thoroughly cover how to pay for college without loans. This can help you pay for college without going broke, or at least graduating without a load of student debt. Maybe taking out loans for college isn’t a good financial option for you. Maybe your parents can’t or won’t co-sign on the necessary loans. Maybe you just hate the thought of having student debt. Whatever your reasons, choosing to pay for college without loans is a completely valid decision. I won’t sugarcoat this - it might make paying for college more difficult, especially if you don’t have many other financial aid options available. That isn’t to say, however, that there aren’t some viable options available for almost any student who wants to avoid taking on debt. Before going through all these options, I’ll briefly talk about college expenses and the reasons why some people choose to take out loans. Then, I’ll give non-loan aid options for students based on whether they demonstrate high or low financial need. I’ll finish off with info on how much aid you can expect to receive without having to take on debt. What Does College Cost? Why Do People Take Out Loans? The first expense you probably think of when calculating colleges costs will probably be tuition. Average tuition rates vary by the type of school you attend: $31,231 average tuition for private colleges $9,139 average tuition for in-state residents at public colleges $22,958 average tuition for out-of-state residents at public colleges Tuition is expensive enough on its own, but it's not the only major expense associated with attending college.You’re also responsible for room, board, transportation, books, and personal expenses.The cost of room and board also varies by school type, although not as widely as tuition costs: $,188 average room board at private colleges $9,804 average room board at public colleges If we add tuition, room, board, and other expenses, the average cost of attending college in the US ranges from $19,000 - $42,419.This is a pretty huge annual expense when we consider that the average US household income is about $50,000. So how does the average student afford these huge expenses? As it turns out, most students don't end up paying full sticker price for college. As of a few years ago, the average student received about $7,000 in non-loan financial aid per year - the rest of college costs would be covered by family contributions or (as we'll talk more about shortly), loans. A financial aid award of $7,000 makes a significant dent in total college expenses, especially if you're attending a less expensive school, but it would rarely cover all tuition, room, and board costs. If non-loan aid and family contributions don't add up to students' total college costs, they'll need help making up the difference. The average US student has about $28,400 in loans after graduation. In my experience, most students anticipate having to take out loans unless they're in one of two situations: They demonstrate very high financial need, thereby qualifying for many need-based aid programs. If they attend a school that meets all financial need, their families may not have to pay a cent to send them to college. They come from wealthy families who are able to cover all college expenses, even if they don't qualify for any need-based financial aid. Most students are somewhere in the middle, with a gap between what they have (savings, grants, scholarships) and what they need (total cost). This is where loans traditionally come in. There’s nothing inherently bad about taking out student loans, but if you’re striving to avoid student debt, the next section will outline all viable options and strategies. Financial Aid Options: How to Pay for School Without Student Loans Want to say no to student loans? This section will outline realistic financial strategies to help you do that. Your options for paying for school without loans largely depend on your financial status. Many non-loan financial aid options are need-based, so students who demonstrate high financial need tend to have more aid opportunities. There are some merit-only aid options that don’t take financial need into account - if you don’t demonstrate much financial need, those options will be a good place to start. Before you start considering non-loan payment strategies, you may find it helpful to estimate your own financial need. This way, you'll have a better idea of what aid options (merit-based only, or merit- and need-based) are available to you. Unfortunately,the amount you believe your family can afford doesn’t always match up with the amount that aid sources (schools, government, and private scholarship funds) determine you can afford. To get a realistic idea of what many need-based aid sources will expect your family to contribute, check out the FAFSA4caster: Enter in relevant financial information to get an unofficial EFC, or Expected Family Contribution The federal government, schools, and some need-based aid sources use this number to make an assessment of your family’s financial need The lower your EFC, the more aid you're likely to be eligible for Once you make this estimate, you'll know whether you should focus on the need-based aid options. High Financial Need: Need-Based Aid A lot of non-loan financial aid options are available for students from low-income families. Many of these aid sources are based on financial need or a combination of merit and financial need. Grants Federal grants: The Pell Grant is awarded to students with low EFCs. Check out Pell Grant eligibility requirements and application instructions. Institutional grants: Many top schools have exceptional need-based financial aid programs. Some even claim to meet 100% of unmet need without using loans - that is, anything that you can't afford to pay after getting federal grants or scholarships. Scholarships Many top scholarships are need-based and provide very generous awards.If they cover all unmet need, they'll pay for all expenses that aren't covered by grants or other scholarships. Some awards give you a set amount every semester or every year; others are nonrenewable, one-time awards. It'snot easy to budget around scholarships because they’re unpredictable, and the best ones tend to be very competitive. To start your scholarship search, check out our guides to the top scholarship programs for high school seniors and high school juniors. The Perkins Loan I know this is supposed to be a post on non-loan financial aid options only, but hear me out - if you plan on pursuing certain service careers, you could be eligible for 100% loan cancellation if you take out a Perkins loan. If you get your loan canceled or forgiven, it essentially functions as a grant - that is, it's free money to pay for school. The Perkins loan is meant for students with exceptional financial need. Read more about the Perkins loan program, its eligibility requirements, and the forgiveness process. Schools You may be able to avoid student loans just by applying to the right schools. Some schools, particularly top private colleges, tend to offer generous financial aid packages. Like I mentioned earlier, some of them even commit to covering all unmet financial need - the schools with the best financial aid programs don't ask students to take out loans in order to cover costs, either. If you're interested in public schools, stay in-state -resident tuitions and costs are usually much lower forthan those for non-residents. Low Financial Need: Merit-Based Aid There are fewer non-loan aid options for students who come from higher-income families, but they’re still out there! Keep in mind that you don't have to be higher-income to qualify for merit-based aid - anyone could theoretically benefit from the aid options listed below. Scholarships There are a ton of merit-based scholarships out there. You’ll have to make sure to carefully read all eligibility requirementsbecause some scholarship programs also take financial need into account. To get started with your scholarship search, check out our guides to the top awards for high school seniors and juniors. The Coca-Cola Scholarship is a particularly large merit-based scholarship award. Schools Even if your family has a relatively high income, you may still qualify for institutional grants at certain schools. Some private schools with top financial aid programs award aid to families who make well into six figures - for example, Harvard doesn’t ask families to contribute more than 10% of their adjusted gross income. If you're interested in public schools, apply to college and universities in-state - your tuition will be much cheaper, on average, than if you attended an out-of-state public school. If you ultimately won’t qualify for much need-based aid but have other academic, athletic, or artistic strengths that make you a competitive applicant, you could qualify for merit-based aid. Start by checking out this list of schools that award the most merit-based aid - all the schools listed awarded merit aid to at least 40% of their students last year. How Much Can You Get Without Loans? You don't need a fountain pen to do these calculations, although you're welcome to use one. In this section, I'll run through realistic expectations of how much money you can earn through different aid options. I'll run through realistic example situations at the end. Grants and Other School-Based Aid This aid will vary widely (not unsurprisingly) by school. Schools’ net price calculators will give you a good idea of how much money they could offer you if you were accepted. You’ll have to enter relevant financial info (e.g. income, assets) for both you and your parents in order to get an accurate estimate. If a school awards merit-based aid, they might also ask about things like GPA and SAT/ACT scores. To access a particular institution's net price calculator, just google "[school name] net price calculator." Scholarships Unfortunately, there’s no good rule of thumb to estimate how much money you could get from scholarships that you apply to. Many scholarships are pretty competitive, so the more programs you apply to, the better your chances of getting funding. If you start looking at scholarships earlier in your high school career, you can get a head start in targeting better scholarships. Examples I'll run through two different financial aid scenarios here to show you howyou can cover your college costs without taking out any loans. In the first example, the student is attending a public school and has low financial need; in the second example, the student is attending a private school and has high financial need. Public School + Low Need Student A is a high achiever who comes from a relatively wealthy family in Arizona. I plugged some general academic and financial information into Arizona State University's net price calculator to come up with her Cost of Attendance. Here's her background information: Current high school senior in Arizona National Merit Program Finalist Ranked #5 in a class of 150, 3.8 GPA 730 on SAT critical reading and math sections Combined family income: $150,000 And here's her financial aid output: There are a few things you should notice about this output: She's saving money right off the bat because she's applying to an in-state public school. Her tuition costs are $10,478, but tuition for an out-of-state resident at ASU comes to $25,042. Her expected family contribution (EFC) is pretty high - ASU expects her family to be able to afford $32,770 a year, which more than covers her costs. She isn't offered any need-based aid, but she is offered a merit-based scholarship of $13,000. She wouldn't be offered this scholarship if she wasn't a high-achiever. With this scholarship, her total out-of-pocket costs for the year come to $14,260. Since Student A's parents make $150,000 a year, ASU assumes thatthey can more than afford a bill of about $14,260 a semester - they wouldn't have to take out any loans to cover these expenses (although they could if they wanted to). Sometimes, though, families are unwilling or unable to make such a contribution. If this is the case for Student A, she could help mitigate these costs by applying to scholarship programs. Private School + High Need Student B is a California resident who's applied to Stanford. He comes from a family of 4 with high financial need. I plugged in some general demographic and financial information (no academic or merit information) into Stanford's net price calculator. Here's his background info: Current high school senior in California One 15-year-old sibling Combined family income: $40,000 And here's his financial aid output: Here's what you should notice about this output: Unlike for Student A, Student B has been offered financial aid based only on financial need - not on merit (although keep in mind that Student B would have to be a high achiever in order to get into Stanford in the first place). Student B'stotal costs ($64,900) are higher than those of Student A ($27,260), but Student B was offered way more in scholarship grant money ($59,900) Stanford doesn't expect Student B's family to make any financial contribution to these costs. Stanford does, however, expect Student B to contribute a small amount ($5,000) through a student job and/or savings. $5,000 a year is a significant, but manageable, bill for a college student.Student B could pay this bill in a number of ways without taking out loans - he could get a work study job during the school year and/or summer, for example. He could alsoapply to different scholarship programs to see if he could cover some or all of the cost with outside funding. What's Next? We've covered thoroughly how to pay for college without loans. Now you have a shot at paying for college without going broke. Financial aid comes in many forms and from many sources. Get clear, simple instructions on applying for financial aid. Whether you have high or low financial need, you should definitely submit a Free Application for Federal Student Aid. Learn more about the FAFSA and how to submit one. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Understanding the Eval () PHP Language Construct

Understanding the Eval () PHP Language Construct The PHP eval () construct is used to evaluate an input string as PHP and then process it as such. Eval() is not a function, but it works like one in the sense that it outputs everything- except instead of outputting it as text, it outputs it as PHP code to be executed. One use of the eval() construct is to store code in a database to execute later. Example of Eval() LanguageConstruct Here is a simple example of coding for the eval() language construct. ; eval(\$a \$a\;); print $a . ; ? This code example outputs My friends are $name and $name2 when first called with the print statement, and it outputs  My friends are Joe and Jim when called the second time after running eval (). Requirements and Characteristics of Eval() The passed code cant be wrapped in opening and closing PHP tags.The passed code must be valid PHP.All statements must be terminated with a semicolon.A return statement terminates the code evaluation.Any variable defined or changed in eval() remains after it terminates.What a fatal error occurs in the evaluated code, the script exits.Because eval() is a language construct and not a function, it cant be used in higher-order functions. The Danger of Using Eval() The PHP manual discourages the use of the eval() construct, stressing its use is very dangerous because arbitrary PHP code can be executed. Users are instructed to use any other option than eval() unless that is not possible. The use of PHP eval() construct presents security risks.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

You can choose the topic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

You can choose the topic - Essay Example She as well examined anything she could come across concerning every level of the pregnancy and she trained each day. She felt great and her blood job was the best the doctor’s office had witnessed in a pregnancy in a lengthy time. She then studied techniques of delivery and after taking part in many classes and examining a bunch of manuscripts; she concluded that the best would be for her to undergo labor and delivery logically. Susan and her husband had a personal teacher who directed them on the Bradley Technique of childbirth that educated one of how to respire and concentrate. She did not need the epidural medicines in her child’s bloodstream and understood it would likely remain uneasy for the baby; however, it would be good for the child. She had absolutely no difficulties in her pregnancy. When the day at last arrived that her water impulsively cracked at 41 weeks, her initial experience with labor started. She underwent 19 hours of labor, however, the final couple of hours were the major passionate from the moment they concluded to start Pitocin. Lastly, at 9.20 PM on July 31 1998, their young son came into this globe weighing 9 Ibs and 7.6 oz. the baby was 21 inches tall and produced a healthy cry. There was absence of difficulties in labor or delivery. The baby began breastfeeding inside ten minutes of birth and was 9/9 on the APGAR scale. As previously said, she studied and examined anything she could come across while she was pregnant to make well-versed decisions. This was her personality and likely an item of her career of being a health transcriptionist. She had the OB/GYN mark a three page typewritten Birth Plan that she had collected after carrying all the study and looking for the matters that were significant to her. The Birth Plan was inclusive of Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum aspirations. She had the ability to study, examine all the views, and make conclusions on what they considered best for

Juvenile Delinquency in Context Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Juvenile Delinquency in Context - Research Paper Example This study does not just look at victims first in and effort to determine if they then become juvenile criminals themselves, but it also look at juvenile offenders who subsequently become victimized themselves. The authors also look at other possible causes of juvenile delinquency, such as bully and experience some form of traumatic stress. The Development Victimization survey forms that basis for much of the study, and it uncovers evidence that quite a few groups of adolescents are labeled as delinquent, but do not suffer from victimization themselves. Also, it is discovered that being a victim does not necessarily lead someone to become a juvenile delinquent himself or herself. Iravani, M. R. (2012). A social work study on juvenile delinquency. Management Science Letters, 2(4), 1403-1408. The authors of this article present the findings from an empirical study that examined the effects that different factors in society played on adolescents become labeled as a juvenile delinquent. The study design employed the distribution of a survey to 100 adolescents who are known to have committed a crime. Specifically questioned were such areas as family conditions, religion, economic situation, the impact of media, and physical and psychological characteristics. The authors wanted to see to what extent each of these factors played, if any, in the incidences of juvenile delinquency. ... Khurana, A., and Gavazzi, S. (2011). Juvenile delinquency and adolescent fatherhood. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55(5), 756-770. This is an interesting study that explores the prevalence of juvenile delinquency amongst teenage fathers. A good sample size of nearly 3,000 males participated in the study, and the findings are explored in the 14-page study article. It was discovered, among other things, African American youth have equal rates of fatherhood as other European races who are also offenders. This study leads to the conclusion the juvenile delinquency as a whole can lead to risky sexual behaviors contributing to teenager fatherhood, and this has little to nothing to do with race. It was also reported that European youth you commit crimes have higher rates of drug and substance abuse than others, and are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors. In essence, the authors of this study contradict other research, and commonly held b eliefs, that racial stereotyping has a great deal to do with the rates of certain minority groups having a higher propensity toward behavior leading to juvenile delinquency. Kirschbaum, K., Grigoleit, L., Hess, C., Madea, B., and Musshoff, F. (2013). Illegal drugs and delinquency. Forensic Science International, 226(1-3), 230. While much research has been conducted about the influence of drugs and other types of substance abuse on an individual’s behavior, not much is known about the factors involved. This study takes different types of juvenile crimes and determines if there is a correlation between a particular type of substance abuse. In the end it was discovered that there is no set tie

Friday, October 18, 2019

Advanced financial Accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Advanced financial Accounting - Essay Example However, certain facts about accounting standards, and what they have achieved or failed to achieve, are behind the scepticism of some professionals who question the need for accounting standards. A brief look at these circumstances might be in order before proceeding further. Perhaps the most important among these is the spate of financial misrepresentations, and the fraudulent approaches that could be adopted by large and reputed organizations such as Enron, Worldcom and Arthur Anderson in spite of the existence of these standards. If expenses can be misstated in spite of standards, and the cautious investor has to look behind the published figures in any case, what purpose do accounting standards serve? The answer to this question lies in the fact that in the absence of accounting standards such misrepresentation would acquire legal status at least in some cases. The solution therefore is not to avoid accounting standards altogether but to strengthen them. One of the lacunae in the existing accounting standards is the lack of uniformity among various sets of standards followed nationally in various countries. With increasing globalisation, more and more organizations are exposed to multi-national working and require a common framework for financial reporting. Moreover, even in cases of national reporting most accounting standards have a number of weaknesses. For example, many accounting standards, including the one by US Financial Accounting Standards Board, are rules oriented, while the need of the day seems to be principle based accounting. Yet another issue is the inadequacy of accounting standards by themselves to prevent the occurrence of fraud as has been witnessed in several cases around the world. This, however, is understandable, as accounting standards are not a panacea for all evils related to financial reporting but are to be taken only as guidelines

Compare the video in the youtube about the fieldwork for boy scouts Assignment

Compare the video in the youtube about the fieldwork for boy scouts and girl scouts - Assignment Example To avoid the heat of the sun, the comedy skit was performed at night. As a couple of Boy Scouts were doing the skit, the other group members were playing the role of the audiences. While the Boy Scout speaker was telling the story, another guy was purposely acting whatever was being spoken about the storyline. For example, every time the speaker had mentioned the phrase â€Å"falling rocks†, the other guy would intentionally fall down the mattress in a prone position. video is about a group of Boy Scouts engaged in a skit that requires a group of 11 Boy Scouts to sing and dance in front of the audiences. In this particular video, the Boy Scouts were singing the song â€Å"If I were not a Boy Scout, I’ll tell you what I would be†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ (Mccullarsj1). Basically, each of the Boy Scout who were performing a skit had their own line to say. As the song progresses, the Boy Scouts grouped in pairs who had said what they would be if they were not a Boy Scout would all at the same time shout what they think they would be in life. The third video involves a group of eight (8) Girls Scouts who were doing a skit on â€Å"If I weren’t a counselor† (Robbert Bobbert). This particular skit was performed during day time at St. Albans. Throughout the skit, the Girl Scout performers were singing and dancing as they share to the audiences what they think they would be in case they were not a counselor. In this particular video, the Girl Scout audiences were very attentive to the group performers. Each Girl Scout performing the skit had their own line to say with regards to what they would like to be if they were not a cousellor. As the song progresses, the Girl Scouts who had said what they want to be if they were not a Counsellor would all at the same time shout what they think they would be in life. The fourth video is all about a three (3) Girl Scouts who were singing the

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Professionalism in Environmental Public Health Essay - 1

Professionalism in Environmental Public Health - Essay Example environment, governing authorities and other civil organizations are spearheading projects aimed at mitigating the effects of environmental pollution. Individuals involved in implementation of these mitigating measures are called environmental public health workers. Like any other career field, environmental health workers are expected to perform their duties in a professional manner. This essay evaluates on the aspect of professionalism in environmental public health. Concepts appraised in professionalism include competency, education and ethics. The essay extrapolates on how each of the concepts mentioned contributes towards professionalism in environmental public health. In contemporary workplace settings, professionalism remains an inherent requirement of all employees. Typical workplace settings like healthcare institutions require all workers to follow simple guidelines while executing their respective duties. These simple guidelines aim at enhancing achievement of an institution’s mission and vision objectives. From a theoretical perspective, professionalism involves application or adoption of character patterns within a work place in order to direct one’s effort towards achieving high-quality productivity (Nagel, 2011). In the context of environmental public health, workers within this field deals with ensuring safety of the public. This means that members of the public trust employees of environmental public health to safeguard their lives in relation to environmental aspects. In most cases, the manner in which these workers relate with people in their work determines the public’s attitudes towards all environmental health workers. This means that health workers should maintain a sustainable and professional demeanor while dealing with members of the public. Therefore, professionalism is a paramount quality of individuals within the public health sector (Nagel, 2011). Continued education is instrumental in enhancing professionalism of workers