Sunday, January 12, 2020

Air Asia- Porter’s Five Forces

Porter’s five forces Michael E. Porter claimed that there are five competitive forces which can shape every industry by identify and analysis those five forces(appendix) and thus determine strengths and weaknesses of the industry. Those five forces are now used to determined Air Asia’s strengths and weaknesses which are shown as below: Threat of Entry There is a high barrier entering airlines industry since it requires high capital to set up everything such as purchase or lease air craft, set up office, hire staffs, and etc. Thus, this has reduced the treat to Air Asia. Moreover, brand awareness is quite important in this industry. Thus, to enter this industry not only required high capital but also have to take some time to create brand awareness. Consumers always choose the product or service they really trust. Thus, instead of creating brand awareness, new entry has to create so called brand loyalty. Hence, this is reducing treat to Air Asia too. ( Roy L. Simerly) However, the government legislation is one of the barriers for entering airlines industry. For example, MAS has been protected by Malaysia government on the route to Sydney and Seoul Incheon. Therefore Air Asia find itself very difficult getting a new route from government. This not only affects the timeline set by Air Asia but also influence their profit. Power of suppliers Every industry has someone to play the role as suppliers. Power of the suppliers is important as it will affect the industry. In airline industry, the power of suppliers is quite high since there are only two major suppliers which are Airbus and Boeing hence there are not many choices to airline industry. Nevertheless, the global economic crisis has limited the new entrant and also reducing the upgrade of planes in the immediate future. However, both suppliers provide almost same standard aircrafts and hence the switching to Air Asia is low. Moreover, Air Asia placed a large amount of order from Airbus in order to expand its routes to international routes. As a result, the power of suppliers may be reduced as Airbus’s profit may be influenced by Air Asia. ( Roy L. Simerly) Power of buyers Buyers are one of the factors which will give influence the industry whether making profit or loss. Nowadays, those buyers are much more knowledgeable and high educated. Thus, they are very sensitive to the price no matter in what product or service. In this case, even Air Asia always provide lowest price to customers, but they still will make comparison between airlines. Secondly, to switch to other service is very simple because Air Asia is not the only one who provides airline service. I. e. customers still can choose MAS, Tiger Airway, Firefly and etc. ( Roy L. Simerly) Moreover, Air Asia always leaves customers an image as they always delay the flight. Hence, as an investor or business man, they will choose more reliable airlines instead of Air Asia. Threat of substitutes Substitutes are products or services which can replace the original products or services and give almost same satisfaction to the consumers. In airline industry, there are two types of substitutes, indirect and direct substitutes. Indirect substitutes include train, bus, cruise and etc. On the other hand, direct substitutes indicate the other airline. Consumers usually prefer low cost. For example, from Kuala Lumpur to Singapore, there are few transports that consumers can choose such as bus, train and air travel. If the customer is going to a budgeted trip, definitely he will choose bus which is the lowest price among the three. Moreover, the technology is now make information much more easily to assess. Customers can easily compare the price among few airlines just by assessing internet as internet make information more transparency. Nevertheless, the archipelago geographical structure in Malaysia make air travel is the most viable, efficient and convenient mode of transportation. For example, travel from Kuala Lumpur to Bangkok, the customer may choose to take bus or air flight. However, air plane are much more convenient and also lesser time consuming compare with taking bus to Bangkok. Rivalry among existing competitors In every industry, there is positive or negative trend to industry growth rate. If there is positive trend, then the firms have not to steal the market share among them. However, in airline industry, the growth rate is really low due to limited customers. Thus, in order to expand, Air Asia has to steal the market share from its competitors. ( Roy L. Simerly) Secondly, Air Asia leads the main battlefield in price among competitors due to its low operating costs. However, there are more competitors enter to airline industry who have major carriers as their backers or owners may lead to ‘unreasonable’ price war in the future. Moreover, Air Asia is not the only one who provides airline service. There are few low cost carriers such as Firefly, Tiger Airway and etc which makes their services provided weak differentiation. Thus, it becomes a threat to Air Asia. Biblography Roy L. Simerly, Strategic Management Case Analysis,http://www. westga. edu/~bquest/2002/strategic1. htm, assess date: 10th may 2010 Investopedia, Industry Handbook: Porter's 5 Forces Analysis, http://www. investopedia. com/features/industryhandbook/porter. asp, assessed date: 8th may 2010

Saturday, January 4, 2020

1984 Dialectical Journals and Quotes Explained - 3039 Words

Dialectical Journals: 1989 By: George Orwell War is peace, freedom is slavery, ignorance is strength pg. 14 They are the Party slogans, and are written in big letters on the white pyramid of the Ministry of Truth. Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past. The people controlling the present control everything and can ultimately change the past and, therefore; the future. Big brother controls the present. The slogan is an example of the Partys technique of using false history to deteriorate the psychological independence of its people. Freedom is the freedom to say that two plus two make four. This quote adds to the motif/ theme about psychological freedom and independence. In the†¦show more content†¦When the Party speaker suddenly changes the nation he refers to as an enemy in the middle of his speech, the crowds accepts it immediately, and are ashamed to find that they have the wrong rally signs. In the same way, people are able to accept the Party ministries names, though they disagree with their functions The girl with dark hair was coming toward him across the field. With what seemed a single movement she tore off her clothes and flung them disdainfully aside. Her body was white and smooth. pg. 27 Sexual repression theme: this is Winstons dream- the only safe place for independent thought. Citizens of Oceania are not allowed to have sexual pleasure; only reproduction of more Party members. He is rebelling- which is against the law and he can be caught by the thought police for having these thoughts. BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU Symbol of Big Brother: A totalitarian government. he is a reassurance to most people (his name suggests his ability to protect), but he is also an open threat (one cannot escape his watch). Big Brother also symbolizes the vagueness with which the higher ranks of the Party present themselvesÂâ€"its impossible to know who rules Oceania, what life is like for the rulers, or why they act the way they do. The Glass Paperweight and St. Clements Church-symbol: Winston buys a paperweight in an antique store in the prole district that comes to symbolize his attempt to reconnect with the past. Symbolically, when the Thought Police arrestShow MoreRelatedEssay on Addiction: Suffering, acceptance, and change1644 Words   |  7 PagesCarl Rogers stated, â€Å"The curious paradox is that when I accept myself just as I am, then I can change (see http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/c/carl_rogers.html). Many modern approaches to addiction recovery utilize a dialectical model to examine the change process. Third wave behavioral therapies such as Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), along with mindfulness meditation (MM), and the 12 Step Recovery model of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) useRead MoreOrganizational Behaviour Analysis28615 Words   |  115 Pagesof a twist in places. Recent work on trust also covers important ground in the discussion of competition and co-operation (Coulson, 1997, 1998; Gambetta, 1988; Kramer Tyler, 1996; Misztal, 1996), as does the work on co-operation itself (Axelrod, 1984; Baker, 1996; Nowak, May Sigmund, 1995). 4 Although intended to be funny, Scott Adams (1996) The Dilbert Principle is also worth a look for its acute observations about the experience of change at low levels in an organisational hierarchy. Read MoreParental Grief Essay14598 Words   |  59 Pagesresearch and a special thanks to my intern Julia Godresse for her invaluable contribution to these projects. 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Friday, December 27, 2019

Substance Use Disorders ( Sud ) - 1020 Words

Introduction Substance use disorders (SUD’s) are defined when the recurrent use of drugs and / or alcohol give rise to an array of clinically significant behavioral and physical health problems (Agley, 2016; Dwinnels, 2015). Substance use disorders impair individuals’ safety and quality of life and often co-occur with depression disorders (Dwinnels, 2015; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMHSA], 2014). According to the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, approximately 21.5 million Americans aged 12 or older had SUDs within the past year (Montgomery, 2015; SAMHSA, 2014). Currently, it is estimated that 20.2 million people with SUDs did not receive appropriate care (SAMHSA, 2014; Small, 2016).†¦show more content†¦Department of Health Human Services, DHHS, n.d.). Milstead Framework Agenda Setting Applying Knestrick and Milstead (1998), health policy framework to the previously identified problem of SUDs, agenda setting is priority. Politicians, lobbyists, congressmen, and the public, need to know the prevalence, scope, and impact of substance use disorders at the local level. According to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, (2016) alcohol-impaired driving death rates were 28% compared to the U.S. top performer 14%. Drug overdose death rates in Athens County, Ohio were 13% compared to the U.S. top performer 8% (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2016). According to a recent economic study conducted by the National Drug Intelligence Center (2011), estimated costs for illicit drug use in the United States in 2007 exceed $193 billion health care dollars. Moreover, in 2012, fatal drug overdoses cost Ohioans $2.0 billion dollars (Ohio Department of Health, 2015). Legislative Action The next facet of Knestrick and Milsteid’s framework (1998) is legislative action. Reflecting back to the 1990’s the Institute of Medicine published a series of reports informing on the need to integrate primary care services with mental health and SUD’s, however, legislation failed to support this recommendation until the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 (MHPAEA). The MHPAEA act requires equal insurance coverageShow MoreRelatedSubstance Use Disorders ( Suds )1720 Words   |  7 Pagesdetermined that children raised by substance using parents are at an increased risk for developing substance use disorders (SUDs) in adulthood as a result of familial dissemination of substance abuse through both the environments in which the children are raised and genetic susceptibility (Merikangas et al., 1998; Merikangas Avenevoli, 2000). Unfortunately, there is an insignificant amount of literature exa mining the effects that the combined treatment and recovery of substance abusing parents has on theRead MoreSubstance Use Disorder ( Sud )948 Words   |  4 PagesSubstance Use Disorder’s (SUD) have become an escalating issue in the mental health field over the last few decades. The alarming incline to drug related and co-occurring maladaptive behaviors has created a dedicated science to better understand and define this problematic situation. Definition allows the therapeutic process to evolve around the symptomatic problem in order to deliver the hope of recovery. Social stigmas often view drug abuse and addiction as one in the same, but when viewed by theRead MoreSubstance Use Disorders ( Suds )2100 Words   |  9 Pagesby substance using parents are at an increased risk for developing substance use disorders (SUDs) in adulthood as a result of familial dissemination of substance abuse through both the environments in which the children are raised and genetic susceptibili ty (Merikangas et al., 1998; Merikangas Avenevoli, 2000). However, there is an insignificant amount of literature examining the effects that the combined treatment and recovery of substance abusing parents has on their children. Substance useRead MoreIndividuals With Substance Use Disorders ( Suds )843 Words   |  4 PagesIndividuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) are difficult to treat due to the high prevalence of relapse, with an average of 50% relapsing within the first year (Bowen et al., 2014). 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Tull, Kim L. Gratz, and Scott F. Coffey, University of Mississippi. Researchers conducted a research about how PTSD-SUD diagnosis affect on residential SUD treatment completion(Tull, 2012;Gratz, 2012;Coffey,2012 p.763).   Aside from the researches leaded by professors at University ofRead MoreBorderline Personality Disorder and Substance Abuse Essay1650 Words   |  7 Pagespaper will examine the results of four studies: One is a prospective follow-up study, one is a prospective naturalistic study, one is a case control study and the last one is a randomized clinical trial. They are on borderline personality disorder and substance abuse articles by Walter et al. (2009), Zanarini et al. (2010), Gratz Tull, (2010), and by Linehan, Schmidt III, Dimeff, Craft, Kanter Comtois, (1999) respectively. The hypotheses, methods and results will be summarized. 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The rate of PTSD and SUD in adults receiving chemical dependency services ranges from 12% to 34% and the rates of trauma throughout the lifetime is even greater (Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, Huges, Nelson, 1995; Langeland Hartgers, 1998; Najavits, Weiss, Shaw, 1997; Stewart, 1996; Stewart, Conrod, Pihl, Dongier, 1999; Triffleman, 1998). Moreover, a dual-diagnosis of PTSD and SUD is two to three times moreRead MoreThe Growing Percentage Of Males And Females With Substance Use Disorder1656 Words   |  7 PagesSuffering with Substance Use Disorder Jerrelda Drummer Sanders SOWK 751 Dr. D. Freeman December 4, Fall Semester 2015 Southern University at New Orleans Males and Females Suffering with Substance Use Disorder 2. About 24 million Americans over age 12 (or 9% of the population) have used an illegal drug (mostly marijuana) or abused a medication in the past month, (APA 2013). A drug is (1) any substance that affects the

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Relationship of Cultural Diversity and Employee Motivation...

The study is focused on multiple methods research design. The research design uses deductive approach which involves testing of theoretical preposition by the employment of data collection. A theoretical perspective is used in this paper provides certain direction for the research. From this perspective, particular theories discussed in Section 2 are used to limit the scope of the research and brig a focus to it. The data which used to analyze the central question of the paper is quantitative. Quantitative data includes both primary and secondary data which can contribute to a research process (Saunders et al., 2012). The secondary data was collected primarily through academic journals (peers-reviewed) and some text books which can be found in reference list. The reference list also includes small number of additional readings which highly contributed to the research process. One of the most broadly used data collection method within the survey strategy is questionnaire (Saunders et al., 2012) Therefore, data which used to test a theoretical preposition in this paper is primarily collected through questionnaire. This study based on the method of questionnaire, because it is an efficient way to gather data from a large number of respondents. Another reason why the questionnaire was choosen is the context of the research topic. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of cultural diversity on employee motivation within European context. The size of sampleShow MoreRelatedAn Informal Institution Based View1593 Words   |  7 Pages 2014) Informal institution governs individual and firm behavior in various countries. When formal institutions are unclear, informal institutions help to reduce the uncertainty. Informal institution deserves attention in facilitating better relationships among people who belongs to different backgrounds. 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Thus the importance of American GOsRead MoreHow Globalization Affects Our Small Companies Or Large Businesses?2628 Words   |  11 Pagesthat while we have some type of knowledge of this, it isn’t the same as really understanding a different culture and how Globalization plays such a huge role. Globalization In todays world managers must understand the culture and diversity of the people they are, or will be, managing. In many countries women are not equal, if the manager is a strong, independent manager it may be difficult for a man in one of these countries to learn to work with her. As long as a manager is awareRead MoreThe Top 2015 Best Companies For Multicultural Women1420 Words   |  6 Pageshundred and eight countries worldwide, including America, Europe, the Middle East and Africa (Payau, 2014). The company was built based on innovation as it is today with technological advances, which is one of the core business fundamentals. 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Our focus will be the following HRM practices administering multinational and global organisations:(i) Selection and Recruitment (ii) Training and Development (iii) Employee Motivation (iv) Labour Laws and Regulations (v) HRIS Recruitment and selection is the initial and most crucial activity of Human resource management. It is a process of attracting and seeking a pool of qualified applicants from which potential candidates

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Export Instability and Economic Development

Question: Discuss about the Export Instability and Economic Development. Answer: Introduction The report will discuss in detail about the economic development which is based on the elaboration of the financial wealth which are associated with the countries or communities for the welfare of the people. It can be done from the policy perspectives or an economic development point of view (Blakely and Leigh, 2013). It can also be defined as some reasonable efforts that can help in improving the economic welfare and also improve the necessary quality of life for the society. This is done by developing or retaining work of people and also supporting incomes and the central base for tax (Coale and Hoover, 2015). Economic development There are significant differences that exist between economic development and growth. The term growth in the economy is related to the rising of particular measures such as real kind of national income or gross domestic product. National income can be expressed regarding calculation of value added results which can be aggregated based on the local economic known as GDP. So when GDP of any country increases economists calls it economic growth (Blakely and Leigh, 2013). Also, the term economic development is something else and much more than economic growth (Blakely and Leigh, 2013). It means improvement in a various kind of indicators like literacy rates or life expectancy. In fact, it is considered as a measure based on economic welfare that does not base on significant aspects like leisure time, freedom, and social justice. On the other hand, economic growth of any particular measure is not enough for economic development. The term economic development is often utilized in the local sense as well since it aims at recruitment of various operations in business to a particular region and it is based on the retention of business functions within a region or assisting in many new companies (Coale and Hoover, 2015). Moreover, there are also the needs of many groups in a constituency that consistently guide economic developer and their action. For instance, when a local developer is functioning in the office of mayor then he can act towards diminishing the level of unemployment by gaining the attention of business which has the huge need for labor. The Economic Developer also works in the chamber of commerce which is mainly dominated by banks, utilities that will select producer with significant capital-based investments (Duflo, 2012). At the same time, an economic developer who is functioning for many state manufacturers will also lobby for increased workforce and training money. He will also focus on many new businesses particularly those who are based on intellectual property which is developed by the colleges. There are three vital areas in the concept of economic development discussed in detail as below: These are the policies that any government takes to meet many broad economic based goals like stability in prices, high rate employment, increased tax base and growth related to sustainability. These kinds of efforts also consist of monetary as well as many fiscal policies; then there is regulation of many financial institutions and tax policies (Lockwood, 2015). Programs and policies also provide a significant infrastructure and various kinds of services like parks, highways, housing and many education-based projects. It is also directed towards the creation of job as well as retaining through some extraordinary efforts in finances, small new businesses, development in neighborhood and development in general. It also consists of retention of business and its overall expansion, transfer in technology, workforce training, and development in real estate. The third part is the primary attention of economic development working people (Lockwood, 2015). The concept of economic development which is, therefore, is imperative for the economics on a society level, have also evolved in last few years into a full-fledged industry of high expertise and practitioners. There are two important roles for the professionals where one aims at providing leadership in the formulation of policies, and in other, there are administer program and projects. The professionals in this concept work in a public office or local level office or semi government company (MacBean, 2011). Such companies operate as single entities and in few cases as a department of a local body. The primary role is to seek out new kind opportunities and at the same time also retain the wealth in existing business. There are more twenty thousand professional who work worldwide in the current highly specialized industry. The competition is intense between the states and communities. Primary attention is given too many functions which are undertaken by an organization that helps them compete and at the same time also sustain in the vibrant societies. Also, the usage of community that is profiling for tools and database also calculate the assets of the community versus another kind of communities which also happens to a major factor of the concept of economic development. Creation of job, various economic output, and rise in taxable kind are many common types of tools that can be measured (MacBean, 2011). While focusing on the measurement, too much attention is also placed on the professional involved in economic development for not creating any jobs. But in reality, the economic developers do not participate in the creation of employment, but it facilitates the process for many existing businesses and new businesses. This is why it is important that economic developers must ensure there are enough economic and community-based development programs which help in assisting the business to accomplish the objectives. Such kinds of programs are commonly related to policies and can be domestic, statewide and also national in nature (Dob b, 2012). Why have some countries have improved their living standard considerably over the last two decades while others continue to remain impoverished? The main result of the world economy is expanding at a very fast rate in past many years; the advantages of development and growth have just reached the developing countries to a very limited rate. This is not because of any failure in developing countries since the group shares the concept of general economic expansion. The income per capita is also rising but at a low rate per year, but it can be faster than the past (Dobb, 2012). The overall failure lies in many distribution based patterns of previous development which left the poor groups primarily external to the sphere of expansion and improvement of material. There are two kinds of aspects in this concept. First is related to important kind of development which is recorded of the third world and it conceals the fact that many poor or developing countries contains and it is also based on the maximum concentration of the world, and this further leads to experience which will not increase much. Secondly, there is so many examples that the process of growth comes under way in many developing economies are such that overall incomes of poor group rise at a slower rate than the average (Sumner, 2012). The overall debate is also discussed around the design of different policies to offset different trends. Some proponents can be considered with the main aim to be the driver of development in some developing countries along with a particular kind of concession for the poor. Then there is other who provides a larger weight on different policies to improve the distribution internally which is based on income. There are certain differences in the growth and development of the economy. For this, one needs to take care of the regional sense as well the recruitment of the business operations, assisting in the expansions or the business retention. The economic models are set for act which leads to the decrease in the unemployment by attracting the needs of the labor. The work is also for the commercial chambers that is d ominated by the banks, utilities or the other real estate agents. The economic developer tends to work on the state manufacturing association with lobbying for increase in the workforce training money. The economic development for any university is set through the policies that the government tends to undertake to meet the economic objectives like the stability of price, higher employment and the expansion of the tax based services. It also includes direct measurement which is done to satisfy the needs of disadvantaged groups (Sumner, 2012). The challenge has been discussed with many so far which qualitative in terms while trying to translate the international targets for removing the poverty rate into more particular strategy and where feasibility can be tested. The current situation also suggests a framework which is quantitative for analysis, and it also derives some most important conclusion from it (Bixler and Porse, 2011). However, it is not right for a statistical basis for a n analysis which is formal of central relationships involved. Also, there has been a lot of progress in the past sometimes in many areas as well like: The measurement and overall definition of many incidences of poverty are based on using the physical and monetary based indexes. Internationally securing the comparable data on many income based level which is also based on comparisons associated with the purchasing power (Bixler and Porse, 2011). Calculation of the distribution of consumption and revenue within some developing countries. It can be concluded from some researchers that the comparison of many different approaches to reduction of poverty and rise in development also the implication for global and national actions (Bixler and Porse, 2011). The experimental nature is also considered, and it is based on the nature of some underlying assumptions which shows that it builds on the combination of many approaches. It is also related to national and international kind of actions which is more likely to gain success by decreasing the rate of poverty than just the exclusive dependence on any one of all. The process discussed helps in estimating the level of poverty in every country which utilizes an income level that shows some comparable levels related to purchasing power. It was found that use of any purchasing power ratios decreases the primary difference that exists between the cases based on poverty in developing countries compared to developing countries (Giddens, 2013). The level of poverty in any country entirely based on two points- some incomes and the standard of inequality in the overall distribution. However, the estimated of growth in income are gaining popularity. There is a regular kind of time series where there are some reliable sources, and it also utilizes different comparable theories which are not present sometimes. There are some countries that can be observed for some time and when time series data is not available for single countries any assessment of transition in the distribution of income will help in the development, and it should be based on what is known as cross country information (Giddens, 2013). The underlying theme in the debate builds on the trends present in income distribution, and it is also based on the development of past which is accompanied by the rising in inequality where poor can gain advantages is low from current overall growth. The concept of difference in income is there since ages, and the idea of globalization has gained a lot of force in the current world economy. There are some views which work as a process which is advantageous and is considered a key to coming economic development in the world. The concept is both inevitable and also irreversible. There is other who regards it with some amount of hostility; in fact, there is fear in some cases as well which is based on the increase in the level of inequality in nations, the threat to employment and standard of living and slow progress in society. It is important to understand some concept and aspects of globalization which focus on recognizing different methods in which different countries can tap the advantaged of the overall process while also remaining more realistic about the overall potential and risks associated with it (Chambers, 2014). The concept of globalization also offers so many opportunities for world development in the real sense but is not evenly progressive. There are some countries which are becoming more and more integrated into the global economy quickly than other. Those countries that could integrate are the one that is on the path of faster growth and also reduced overall poverty. There are some outward based policies which are brought a lot of prosperity and dynamism. At the same time, when the living standard rises, it is possible to grow and develop from the democratic point of view, and economic issues like work standards and environment may reduce (Chambers, 2014). The overall crisis in the market which are emerging during the time of the 1990s have made it evident that there is a considerable amount of risk in globalization and one can expect the high level or risk in it. Risk comes from changing capital movement and the overall risk of environmental issues or degradation in social and economic level which is caused because of poverty (Castles et al., 2013). In developed countries, there are many investors to embrace the transformations in policies to (or intending to) building a strong economy and a financial system which is stronger that can manufacture a rapid amount of growth and make sure that level of poverty can be decreased (Castles et al., 2013). Conclusion There is unparallel economic growth with global per capita GDP is rising at a very fast rate. However, the overall increase is not very steady and the strongest expansion and the time of quick expansion in trade were accompanied by a different kind of business and later considered as financial or liberalization. In the wartime, the world turned the back number of internationalism or concept of globalization and number of counties went into closed kind of economies where an idea of protectionism and pervasiveness in capital control was familiar (Castles et al., 2013). Significant factors were existing in devastation where the growth in per-capita income fell to very low percentage during the time of 1950 and before. For rest of the time, when the population grew at unparalleled speed, per capita income development was above two percent and fastest was the speed at the date of the boom in a post-world war in many industrial based countries (Castles et al., 2013). Reference Blakely, E.J. and Leigh, N.G., 2013.Planning local economic development. Sage. Coale, A.J. and Hoover, E.M., 2015.Population growth and economic development. Princeton University Press. Duflo, E., 2012. Women empowerment and economic development.Journal of Economic Literature,50(4), pp.1051-1079. Lockwood, W.W., 2015.Economic development of Japan. Princeton University Press. MacBean, A., 2011.Export instability and economic development(Vol. 45). Routledge. Dobb, M., 2012.Soviet economic development since 1917. Routledge. Sumner, A., 2012. Where do the poor live?.World Development,40(5), pp.865-877. Bixler, H.J. and Porse, H., 2011. A decade of change in the seaweed hydrocolloids industry.Journal of Applied Phycology,23(3), pp.321-335. Giddens, A., 2013.The third way: The renewal of social democracy. John Wiley Sons. Chambers, R., 2014.Rural development: Putting the last first. Routledge. Castles, S., De Haas, H. and Miller, M.J., 2013.The age of migration: International population movements in the modern world. Palgrave Macmillan.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Modernization and Democratization

Modernization can be defined as a set of symptoms of social changes in relation to industrialization. one set of these symptoms is motion which infiltrate through all phases of life to make life more comfortable by improving standards of living, enhancing economic growth and development, reducing mortality rate by increasing life expectancy among others. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Modernization and Democratization specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Modernization also means discarding ones way of life and accepting civilization, urbanization, or occupational specialization. Modernization results in improved social life, transformed political institutions, and may even bring in increased political participation, which may result in the recognition of democratic institutions. This paper gives an in-depth analysis of modernization as it tries to relate it to the concept of democratization. Modernization started as early as the 19th century but became apparent in the 20th century. Some scholars believed that, by abolishing all the property owned by private enterprises and individuals, inequalities, and exploitation would be reduced. On the other hand, capitalist theorists argued that, economic development would result in improvement in standard of livings, which would finally result in democracy. Democratization can therefore be defined as the system of letting people decide for themselves (Haggard and Kaufman 17). In politics, the term democratization refers to the transition from an authoritarian government to one that is liberal. An authoritarian government leads people through dictatorship whereas in a democratic government, there is freedom. When country achieves democratization, leaders are elected by a majority vote thereby creating competition in politics, the market becomes liberal, and traders can trade anywhere and in almost every thing. Many scholars have been holding many con flicting debates as to whether democratization results from modernization. Some strongly hold that, democratization has its roots in modernization because, once a country become civilized and people get to learn more about their rights, then for democracy begins.Advertising Looking for essay on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In an authoritarian government, citizens are exploited and denied their rights for instance their right to land because they are assumed to be ignorant about rights and freedoms. However, with modernization, people are exposed and meet other people and are able to realize and point unto the areas where they are receiving unfair treatment from the law officials. There are mainly three forms of democratization; behavioral, attitudinal, and constitutional. A system is said to be experiencing behavioral democratization when there are no factors, for instance from the economic or political systems that are knocking down the regime. Attitudinal democratization occurs when majority of the citizens in a given country are willing to adopt democratic principles. Last but not least, constitutional democratization becomes evident when regulations and laws are put in place in order to prevent the system from falling (Linz and Stepan 62). Before the Second World War, democratization was a term that was only found in dictionaries and many scholars had not developed an interest in it. However, towards the end of the war, many scholars were interested in knowing why some governments would choose to replace their political systems with laissez-faire democracies. They were amazed at how some countries such as Europe would adopt the rule of law to ensure that, its citizens enjoyed their liberties in a political, social, and economic perspective (Karl 23). That is when most scholars defined this shift in political systems as a democratization wave. Since 1970s, many developing cou ntries have made democratic reforms by shifting their systems to liberal systems in other times referred to as â€Å"the western democracies.† They are called western democracies because they emerged from the western countries such as East Asia, and Europe. To explain the factors that lead to democratization, scholars have come up with three theories namely structural, transitional, and modernization. Using the structural theory, democratization is believed to have emerged from the change in structures belonging to the state and some intermediary power. On the other hand, transitional scholars believe that, democratization is caused by inventiveness made by political intellectuals. According to modernization scholars, democratization is led by economic development made by the state. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Modernization and Democratization specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Out of the three theori es, modernization seems to carry more weight than the others do and it was actually the first theory to explain the democratization process. According to Rustow (338), economic development is responsible for all the major changes that occur in a country. It is through economic development that, a nation gains stability even in the global world. Economic development is a result of increased industrialization, urbanization, and literacy levels. According to Lipset (73), more often that not the underdeveloped rural areas lack political democracy simply because their development level is very low. It would be true to say that, modernization leads to democratization. However, there are other factors attributed to democratization, such as change in structures but modernization seems to be leading. It also looks logical given that most of the countries with liberal economies are actually the ones that have high economic development. Most countries in Africa and Asia are yet to achieve de mocratization because their economic development is still very low and unless it rises, they may continue to be led by authoritarian governments. Works Cited Haggard, Stephan and Kaufman, Robert. The political economy of democratic transitions. Lisa Anderson: Transitions to Democracy, 1999 Karl, Terry Lynn. Dillemmas of Democratization in Latin America. New York: Prentice Hall, 1990. Linz, Joseph and Stepan, Andrew. Problems of democratic transition and consolidation. New York: John Hopkins University Press, 1996Advertising Looking for essay on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lipset, Samuel M. Some social requisites of democracy: Economic development and political legitimacy, American Political science Review 53 (1) 1959, pp. 69-105 Rustow, D. A. Transitions to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model, Comparative politics 2 (3) 1970, pp. 337-363 This essay on Modernization and Democratization was written and submitted by user Mitchell Evans to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Free Essays on Muslims

â€Å"Muslim society had a sophistication matched at that time only by the Tang Empire of China.† (Mcdougal Littell, 242) The Muslim society was very advanced in many ways compared to the societies of other major civilizations. They made great advancements in the blending of cultures, math and science, and arts and literature. All this made possible the a semblance of the House of Wisdom, a combination library academy, and translation center. Muslim culture was centered around its four social classes. It included the born Muslims at the top. Converts were in the next class and had to pay higher taxes than the born Muslims. Next came the non-Muslim people who paid the most taxes of them all. The lowest class were the slaves, all of whom were non-Muslim. Muslims believed that math was the basis of all knowledge. A Muslim first described â€Å"al-jabr†, which we still use today as Algebra. Many of the Muslim’s researched of math lead to scientific discoveries. Astronomy and Optics were two fields in which the Muslims greatly excelled in. Ibn Haytham was the person to discover that rays pass from object to eyes. Literature was a strong tradition to the culture All literature stemmed from things such as bravery, love, generosity, and hospitality. All the culture’s literature was based on the sacred Qur’an. Muslims also had a deep interest in art, though they had to come up with inter esting ways to do it. Islam forbid the painting of humans. So artist came up with creative ways to do it, for example using calligraphy. But the most beautiful thing from their culture was the architecture. Though Muslims are now regarded as back-wards in their ways of women. In this particular time period Muslim women had more rights than most women. Poor women could work along side their husbands and the rich ones overlooked servants and could even get an education.... Free Essays on Muslims Free Essays on Muslims â€Å"Muslim society had a sophistication matched at that time only by the Tang Empire of China.† (Mcdougal Littell, 242) The Muslim society was very advanced in many ways compared to the societies of other major civilizations. They made great advancements in the blending of cultures, math and science, and arts and literature. All this made possible the a semblance of the House of Wisdom, a combination library academy, and translation center. Muslim culture was centered around its four social classes. It included the born Muslims at the top. Converts were in the next class and had to pay higher taxes than the born Muslims. Next came the non-Muslim people who paid the most taxes of them all. The lowest class were the slaves, all of whom were non-Muslim. Muslims believed that math was the basis of all knowledge. A Muslim first described â€Å"al-jabr†, which we still use today as Algebra. Many of the Muslim’s researched of math lead to scientific discoveries. Astronomy and Optics were two fields in which the Muslims greatly excelled in. Ibn Haytham was the person to discover that rays pass from object to eyes. Literature was a strong tradition to the culture All literature stemmed from things such as bravery, love, generosity, and hospitality. All the culture’s literature was based on the sacred Qur’an. Muslims also had a deep interest in art, though they had to come up with inter esting ways to do it. Islam forbid the painting of humans. So artist came up with creative ways to do it, for example using calligraphy. But the most beautiful thing from their culture was the architecture. Though Muslims are now regarded as back-wards in their ways of women. In this particular time period Muslim women had more rights than most women. Poor women could work along side their husbands and the rich ones overlooked servants and could even get an education....